Effectiveness of sanitizers, dry heat, hot water, and gas catalytic infrared heat treatments to inactivate salmonella on almonds
Posted: July 21st, 2009 - 7:31pm
Source: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
The majority of almond-related foodborne outbreaks have been associated with Salmonella. Therefore, it is necessary to find an effective method to inactivate these organisms on raw almond prior to market distribution. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of sanitizers (strong or mild electrolyzed water, ozonated water, and distilled water), dry heat treatment, and hot water treatments followed by catalytic infrared (IR) heat treatment to inactivate Salmonella populations on raw almond. Raw almonds inoculated with four-strain cocktails of Salmonella were treated either by soaking in different chemical sanitizers or with dry heat and/or hot water for various periods of time followed by catalytic IR heat treatment for 70 seconds. The treated seeds were then assessed for the efficacy of the treatment in reducing populations of the pathogens. After inoculation and air-drying, 5.73±0.12 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g Salmonella were detected in nonselective medium. Sanitizer treatment alone did not show significant reduction in the Salmonella population, but in combination with IR drying it reduced the population to 3.0 log CFU/g. Dry heating at 60°C for 4 days followed by IR drying for 70 seconds reduced the Salmonella population an additional 1.0log CFU/g. Hot water treatments at 85°C for 40 seconds followed by IR drying for 70 seconds reduced pathogens to an undetectable level by direct plating, but not by enrichment.